Micronesia, Federated States of
- Introduction ::Micronesia, Federated States ofBackground:The Federated States of Micronesia, a UN Trust Territory under US administration, adopted a constitution in 1979. Independence came in 1986 under a Compact of Free Association with the US, which was amended and renewed in 2004. Present concerns include large-scale unemployment, overfishing, and overdependence on US aid.Geography ::Micronesia, Federated States ofLocation:Oceania, island group in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to IndonesiaGeographic coordinates:6 55 N, 158 15 EArea:total: 702 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 191land: 702 sq kmwater: 0 sq km (fresh water only)note: includes Pohnpei (Ponape), Chuuk (Truk) Islands, Yap Islands, and Kosrae (Kosaie)Area - comparative:four times the size of Washington, DC (land area only)Land boundaries:0 kmCoastline:6,112 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nmClimate:tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasionally severe damageTerrain:islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low, coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and ChuukElevation extremes:lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 mhighest point: Dolohmwar (Totolom) 791 mNatural resources:timber, marine products, deep-seabed minerals, phosphateLand use:arable land: 2.86%permanent crops: 24.29%other: 72.86% (2011)Irrigated land:NANatural hazards:typhoons (June to December)Environment - current issues:overfishing, climate change, pollutionEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protectionsigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:four major island groups totaling 607 islandsPeople and Society ::Micronesia, Federated States ofNationality:noun: Micronesian(s)adjective: Micronesian; Chuukese, Kosraen(s), Pohnpeian(s), YapeseEthnic groups:Chuukese 48.8%, Pohnpeian 24.2%, Kosraean 6.2%, Yapese 5.2%, Yap outer islands 4.5%, Asian 1.8%, Polynesian 1.5%, other 6.4%, unknown 1.4% (2000 census)Languages:English (official and common language), Chuukese, Kosrean, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, KapingamarangiReligions:Roman Catholic 52.7%, Protestant 41.7% (Congregational 40.1%, Baptist 0.9%, Seventh-Day Adventist 0.7%), other 3.8%, none or unspecified 0.8% (2000 Census)Population:106,104 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 192Age structure:0-14 years: 32.4% (male 17,478/female 16,915)15-24 years: 20.4% (male 10,933/female 10,715)25-54 years: 37.6% (male 19,370/female 20,551)55-64 years: 6.3% (male 3,374/female 3,360)65 years and over: 3.2% (male 1,500/female 1,908) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 64.4 %youth dependency ratio: 57.7 %elderly dependency ratio: 6.7 %potential support ratio: 14.9 (2013)Median age:total: 23.4 yearsmale: 22.8 yearsfemale: 24 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:-0.38% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 220Birth rate:21.44 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 80Death rate:4.27 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 205Net migration rate:-20.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 220Urbanization:urban population: 23% of total population (2010)rate of urbanization: 1.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:PALIKIR (capital) 7,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Maternal mortality rate:100 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 73Infant mortality rate:total: 22.71 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 81male: 25.12 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 20.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 72.07 yearscountry comparison to the world: 136male: 70.09 yearsfemale: 74.16 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:2.68 children born/woman (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 75Health expenditures:14.2% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 5Physicians density:0.56 physicians/1,000 population (2005)Hospital bed density:3.22 beds/1,000 population (2009)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 94% of populationrural: 92% of populationtotal: 92% of populationunimproved:urban: 6% of populationrural: 8% of populationtotal: 8% of population (2000 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 59% of populationrural: 16% of populationtotal: 26% of populationunimproved:urban: 41% of populationrural: 84% of populationtotal: 74% of population (2000 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:NAHIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:NAHIV/AIDS - deaths:NAObesity - adult prevalence rate:40.6% (2008)country comparison to the world: 12Education expenditures:NALiteracy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 89%male: 91%female: 88% (1980 est.)Government ::Micronesia, Federated States ofCountry name:conventional long form: Federated States of Micronesiaconventional short form: nonelocal long form: Federated States of Micronesialocal short form: noneformer: Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Ponape, Truk, and Yap Districtsabbreviation: FSMGovernment type:constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force on 3 November 1986 and the Amended Compact entered into force in May 2004Capital:name: Palikirgeographic coordinates: 6 55 N, 158 09 Etime difference: UTC+11 (16 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:4 states; Chuuk (Truk), Kosrae (Kosaie), Pohnpei (Ponape), YapIndependence:3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)National holiday:Constitution Day, 10 May (1979)Constitution:10 May 1979Legal system:mixed legal system of common and customary lawInternational law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCtSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Emanuel MORI (since 11 May 2007); Vice President Alik L. ALIK (since 11 May 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of governmenthead of government: President Emanuel MORI (since 11 May 2007); Vice President Alik L. ALIK (since 11 May 2007)cabinet: Cabinet includes the vice president and the heads of the eight executive departments(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president and vice president elected by Congress from among the four senators at large for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 May 2011 (next to be held in May 2015); note - a proposed constitutional amendment to establish popular elections for president and vice president failedelection results: Emanuel MORI reelected president by Congress unopposed; Alik L. ALIK reelected vice presidentLegislative branch:unicameral Congress (14 seats; 4 - one elected from each state to serve four-year terms and 10 - elected from single-member districts delineated by population to serve two-year terms; members elected by popular vote)elections: last held on 5 March 2013 (next to be held in March 2015)election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 14Judicial branch:highest court(s): Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and not more than 5 associate justices and organized into appellate and criminal divisions)judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president of the Federated States of Micronesia with the approval of two-thirds of Congress; justices appointed for lifesubordinate courts: the highest state-level courts are: Chuuk Supreme Court; Korsae State Court; Pohnpei State Court; Yap State CourtPolitical parties and leaders:no formal partiesPolitical pressure groups and leaders:NAInternational organization participation:ACP, ADB, AOSIS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO, WMODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Asterio R. TAKESYchancery: 1725 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20036telephone:  (202) 223-4383FAX:  (202) 223-4391consulate(s) general: Honolulu, Tamuning (Guam)Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Dorothea-Maria (Doria) ROSENembassy: 101 Upper Pics Road, Koloniamailing address: P. O. Box 1286, Kolonia, Pohnpei, 96941; U.S. Embassy in Micronesia, 4120 Kolonia Place, Washington, D.C. 20521-4120telephone:  320-2187FAX:  320-2186Flag description:light blue with four white five-pointed stars centered; the stars are arranged in a diamond pattern; blue symbolizes the Pacific Ocean, the stars represent the four island groups of Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and YapNational anthem:name: ""Patriots of Micronesia""lyrics/music: unknownnote: adopted 1991; the anthem is also known as ""Across All Micronesia;"" the music is based on the 1820 German patriotic song ""Ich hab mich ergeben,"" which was the West German national anthem from 1949-1950; variants of this tune are used in Johannes Brahms' ""Festival Overture"" and Gustav Mahler's ""Third Symphony""Economy ::Micronesia, Federated States ofEconomy - overview:Economic activity consists of subsistence farming and fishing and government which is funded largely by Compact of Free Association (Compact) assistance provided by the US. The islands have few known mineral deposits worth commercial exploration. The potential for tourism is also limited by isolation, lack of adequate facilities, and limited air and water connections hinder development. Under the terms of the original Compact, the US provided $1.3 billion in grants and aid in 1986-2001. The US and the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) negotiated a second (amended) Compact agreement in 2002-2003 that took effect in 2004. The amended Compact runs for a 20-year period to 2024; during which the US will provide roughly $2.1 billion to the FSM. The amended Compact also includes a Trust Fund for the people of the FSM which is to provide an income stream beyond 2024 when Compact grants are to end. The country's medium-term economic outlook appears fragile because of reduced US assistance and lackluster performance of its small and stagnant private sector.GDP (purchasing power parity):$766.4 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 210$756.3 million (2011 est.)$740.7 million (2010 est.)note: GDP supplemented by grant aid, averaging perhaps $100 million annuallyGDP (official exchange rate):$327 million (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:1.4% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 148GDP - per capita (PPP):$7,500 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 139$7,300 (2011 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 14%industry: 12%services: 74% (2011 est.)Agriculture - products:black pepper, tropical fruits and vegetables, coconuts, bananas, cassava (tapioca), sakau (kava), Kosraen citrus, betel nuts, sweet potatoes; pigs, chickens; fishIndustries:tourism, construction; fish processing, specialized aquaculture; craft items (from shell, wood, and pearls)Industrial production growth rate:NA%Labor force:15,920 (2011)country comparison to the world: 213Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 0.9%industry: 20.6%services: 78.5%note: two-thirds of the labor force are government employees (2011 est.)Unemployment rate:22% (2000 est.)country comparison to the world: 165Population below poverty line:26.7% (2000)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%highest 10%: NA%Budget:revenues: $107 millionexpenditures: $102 million (FY10/11 est.)Taxes and other revenues:32.7% of GDP (FY10/11 est.)country comparison to the world: 77Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):1.5% of GDP (FY10/11 est.)country comparison to the world: 29Fiscal year:1 October - 30 SeptemberInflation rate (consumer prices):3.4% (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 1083.5% (2010 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:14.35% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 5214.35% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$27.22 million (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 187Stock of broad money:$118.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 189$113.9 million (31 December 2010 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$56.77 million (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 188$56.77 million (31 December 2011 est.)Current account balance:-$34.3 million (FY05 est.)country comparison to the world: 61Exports:$24.9 million (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 203$14 million (2004 est.)Exports - commodities:fish, garments, bananas, black pepper, sakau (kava), betel nutsImports:$132.7 million (2004)country comparison to the world: 208Imports - commodities:food, manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, beveragesReserves of foreign exchange and gold:$75.06 million (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 166$75.06 million (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$60.8 million (FY05 est.)country comparison to the world: 192Exchange rates:the US dollar is usedEnergy ::Micronesia, Federated States ofElectricity - production:192 million kWh (2002)country comparison to the world: 182Electricity - consumption:178.6 million kWh (2002)country comparison to the world: 186Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2002)country comparison to the world: 194Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2002)country comparison to the world: 186Communications ::Micronesia, Federated States ofTelephones - main lines in use:8,500 (2010)country comparison to the world: 202Telephones - mobile cellular:27,500 (2010)country comparison to the world: 207Telephone system:general assessment: adequate systemdomestic: islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes), satellite (Intelsat) ground stations, and some coaxial and fiber-optic cable; mobile-cellular service available on Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yapinternational: country code - 691; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2002)Broadcast media:no TV broadcast stations; each state has a multi-channel cable service with TV transmissions carrying roughly 95% imported programming and 5% local programming; about a half dozen radio stations (2009)Internet country code:.fmInternet hosts:4,668 (2012)country comparison to the world: 147Internet users:17,000 (2009)country comparison to the world: 196Transportation ::Micronesia, Federated States ofAirports:6 (2013)country comparison to the world: 172Airports - with paved runways:total: 61,524 to 2,437 m: 4914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)Roadways:total: 240 kmcountry comparison to the world: 207paved: 42 kmunpaved: 198 km (2000)Merchant marine:total: 3country comparison to the world: 138by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2 (2010)Ports and terminals:Colonia (Tomil Harbor), Lele Harbor, Pohnepi HarborMilitary ::Micronesia, Federated States ofMilitary branches:no regular military forces (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 26,712 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 22,008females age 16-49: 23,501 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 1,276female: 1,253 (2010 est.)Military - note:defense is the responsibility of the USTransnational Issues ::Micronesia, Federated States ofDisputes - international:noneTrafficking in persons:current situation: Micronesia is a source, and to a limited extent, destination country for women subjected to sex trafficking; Micronesian women are fraudulently recruited for jobs in the US and its territories only to be forced into prostitution or labor upon arrival; Micronesian and foreign women and children are also reportedly prostituted on fishing vessels in Micronesia or its territorial waters, as well as restaurants and clubs frequented by fishermen; complaints of nonpayment and inhuman treatment on fishing boats has led to investigations of labor traffickingtier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Micronesia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; despite passage of implementing regulations for Micronesia's 2012 trafficking law, the government has not reported any investigations, prosecutions, or convictions for sex or labor trafficking; the government also makes no efforts to identify trafficking victims and refer them to protective services; no NGOs provide services to victims; limited efforts are made to increase the public's awareness of human trafficking (2013)Illicit drugs:major consumer of cannabis"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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